List of Diets
Well-known nutritional diets:
The Okinawa diet is a commercially promoted weight-loss
diet based on the standard diet of Ryukyu Islanders. People
from these Japanese islands (of which Okinawa is the largest)
have the highest longevity in the world. This is partly attributed
to the Ryukyuan diet, but also to other factors such as lifestyle,
genetics, and psycho-spiritual health.
The diet followed is relatively low in calories, and also
incorporates fish. Moderation in eating is the approach taken
by most Ryukyuans.
A study of the high rate of centenarians in Okinawa was carried
out to derive any useful lessons for the rest of the world.
Organic food diet
Organic food is, in general, food that is produced
without the use of artificial pesticides, herbicides, and
genetically modified organisms (GMOs). In everyday conversation,
organic is a broad reference, that can apply equally to store-bought
food, to food originating in a home garden where no synthetic
inputs are used, or even to food gathered (or hunted) in the
wild. By contrast, certified organic food is produced according
to strict production criteria, within an often governmental
regulatory framework. In an increasing number of countries,
including the US, Japan and in the European Union, organic
certification is a matter of law, and it is illegal to use
the term organic (at least, commercially) without following
the prescribed rules of organic production. Therefore, confusion
and debate can arise between different answers to, "What
The Ornish Diet is a somewhat popular diet that was
developed by Dr. Dean Ornish M.D. in his book A Program for
Reversing Heart Disease. It is a diet that is specifically
formulated to reverse heart disease but has recently been
used as a weight loss program. This vegetarian diet emphasizes
low fat, filling foods which includes legumes and other high-fiber
The Ornish Diet is a very strict one. Any cholesterol and
saturated fat containing foods are prohibited. All meats are
also not allowed although nonfat dairy products and egg whites
are allowed. This diet propones complex carbohydrates (fruit,
grains, etc.) and limits simple ones (sugars, honey, alcohol.)
The Ornish diet is 10% fat, 20% protein, and 70% carbohydrates.
The typical American diet is 45% fat, 25% protein and 30%
Ovo-lacto vegetarian diet
An ovo-lacto vegetarian (sometimes referred to as
octo-lacto vegetarian) is a vegetarian who consumes eggs and
dairy products. Ovo means "Eggs" and Lacto means
"Dairy". Contrast this with strict vegetarians and
vegans who consume neither.
Most vegetarians are ovo-lacto vegetarians. Generally speaking,
when one uses the term vegetarian an ovo-lacto vegetarian
The Paleolithic diet is a dietary system. Its supporters
argue that since human genetics have scarcely changed since
the stone age an ideal diet would be a reconstructed stone
age diet, such as the one humans and proto-humans used throughout
prehistory. Therefore through studying archeology and modern
hunter gatherers we can learn what a healthy diet looks like.
This diet is concerned primarily with health issues, as opposed
to ethical or economic concerns. Advocates of paleolithic
nutrition believe that the best foods for the human body are
those that humans are best adapted to eat. Proponents argue
that dietary related diseases are caused by straying from
Foods which are not edible raw and unprocessed are excluded
from the diet. The foods falling into this category are mainly
starchy vegetables (e.g. cereals, beans and potatoes). Foods
which are included in the diet are meat, fish, fruits, vegetables
which are edible raw, mushrooms, nuts, eggs and honey. The
single exception to this rule is dairy products. Dairy products
are excluded despite being edible raw since they are nevertheless
a post agricultural food.
Some closely related diets, such as that recommended by the
Weston A. Price Foundation and the Evolution Diet, are more
lenient: they mainly exclude foods developed in the last few
centuries, and claim to improve upon the Paleo-diet by studying
specific factors that contribute to health and longevity.
Dairy, whole grains, legumes, and potatoes are therefore encouraged
insofar as one's specific ancestry allows them to be tolerated,
and culturing of foods is encouraged.
The non-animal foods available on the diet are the same as
those available in raw veganism. However, there are two fundamental
differences between raw veganism and the paleodiet: Firstly,
paleodieters consume meat and other animal products (in fact
usually more is consumed than on a standard modern diet, in
some cases substantially more). Secondly, any and all food
can be cooked if desired.
The generally prescribed proportions of protein, fat, and
carbohydrate are approximately 20-35%, 30-60%, and 20-35%
by calories. By calories the diet is commonly around 45-65%
animal products and 35-55% plant products. Alternatively,
because of the large amount of water in fruits and vegetables,
the diet is, by weight, roughly 2/3 plant products and 1/3
The vitamin and mineral content of the diet is very high
compared to a standard diet, in many cases a multiple of the
Nicholas Perricone is a controversial dermatologist
who has written several books, primarily on the subject of
maintaining the appearance of youth. He has appeared in a
few special programs on PBS, and sells his own line of skincare
products. He is currently an Adjunct Professor of Medicine
at the Michigan State University’s College of Human
Dr. Perricone presents himself as a radical in the dermatological
community, repeatedly encouraging his audience to challenge
the status quo. He compares his work relating diet to skincare
with Ignaz Semmelweis's work on handwashing and the spread
of disease in the 1800s.
"Pesco/pollo vegetarianism", "pescetarianism"
or "semi-vegetarianism" are neologisms coined to
describe certain lifestyles of restricted diet. Most commonly,
these include the practice of not eating certain types of
meat (most commonly "red" meat such as beef, pork,
lamb) while allowing others, such as seafood. There are usually
no restrictions on non-flesh animal products such as dairy,
eggs, or leather. Those observing such a diet often do so
for health reasons although many do practice for ethical or
The Pritikin Diet was created by Nathan Pritikin
and enhanced by his son Robert Pritikin. It is a low-fat,
high carbohydrate diet. (cf. Atkins diet) The theory is that
we have an instinct to eat fat that was developed in the early
days of man. The instinct was useful then because opportunities
to eat fat were rare, and the fat helped to store calories
to make it through the lean times. Now that fat is readily
available, though, the instinct causes us to eat too much
of it, adding unneeded weight and causing other bad side effects.
The goal is that by learning to live on carbohydrates with
a small amount of fat and exercising regularly a person can
achieve the lean and healthy body of our remote ancestors
rather than the overweight and unhealthy body of today.
This diet is grounded on a very simple theory: in order to
feel satisfied (and hence want to stop eating), a human being
needs to consume enough food, of any sort, until he or she
has ingested a certain amount of bulk--physical weight. Fat,
as a substance, is not per se bad; it is necessary, but obviously
it poses the risk of heart disease when consumed in excess.
Moreover, fat contains more calories per pound of its physical
weight than do carbohydrates. (The Nutritional Facts labels
do acknowledge this.) It's something like the opposite of
the old riddle, "Which weighs more--a pound of feathers
or a pound of bricks?" In this case, a pound of fat weighs
the same as a pound of carbohydrates or a pound of protein
but contains more calories. That is the reason one pound of
steak contains more calories than one pound of broccoli. It
is not because the broccoli is per se more healthful: both
foods contain nutrients we need that the other does not. The
result: a given quantity of fat will tack on more calories
than the same quantity of other nutrients.
The stomach and the body, according to Dr. Pritikin's theory,
do not "know" whether the bulk ingested consists
of fat or anything else. We need to know that before we eat
it. The body knows only whether it has obtained sufficient
bulk to feel sated or satisfied. Hence the Pritikin principle
advocates a low-density, high-bulk diet. This means the trusty
standbys: fruit, vegetables, lean meats and fish, and plenty
of nonsoluble fiber, all of which generally promote good health.
Processed, overly fatty and dried foods, on the other hand,
should be avoided--not only because they have additives and
artificial ingredients, or have less nutritional value--but
rather because they are low-bulk and high-calorie. Eating
a fat-drenched muffin will cause a person ingest a lot of
calories without getting much overall satisfaction. The result:
the person will want to eat more.
The principal advantage of the Pritikin diet over others
is that it is less radical and hence less risky. It requires
balanced meals with foods whose nutritional value is indisputable:
fresh vegetables, fruit, and above all fiber--which reduces
the risks of colon cancer and helps the body remove cholesterol.
The Pritikin diet, however, saw its heyday in the 1970s and
is distinctly less popular today, perhaps because it does
not offer immediately perceptible results.